Start a Very Profitable pig farming business in Nigeria – Complete Cost & Guide
A fully big Pig goes for as high as N30, 000 depending on the size. Currently imagine if, for a year you’re able to rear a hundred pigs to maturity. You will be making N3 Million from the sales. If you consider taking it higher like say 2,000 pigs. In a year, you may be earning upward of N60 Million. Considering how rapidly your pigs reproduce. It wouldn’t be much of a big deal to get up to 100 pigs in a year. For every pig farm, there is a cage for rearing them. Now, how do you go about starting-up a pig farm?. Let’s see how you can start a very profitable piggery farming business in Nigeria.
Things you’ll need To Know before Setting-up A Pig Farm
I am into piggery. Pig farming is one of the top hot lucrative farming businesses in Nigeria that is very profitable. Pigs are highly productive, Pregnancy lasts 4 months and a sow will give birth (farrow) to 5-25 piglets in a litter (averaging 10-12). The highest variable cost component in pig farming is feed cost. It accounts for up to 70% of the total cost. The ability to source for feeds in a manner that is more cost effective is success determinant. Generally, pigs have FCR ranging between 2 and 4 which is dependent on the breed and on the feed formulation. FCR is an acronym for Feed Conversion Ratio. It is a measure of how many kgs of feed an animal will eat to produce 1kg of live weight.
This the is a unique formula I adopt for my pigs (Modified for Amino Acid Balancing)
50% of cassava (I purchase them fresh, break them into chips, then dry and store them)
10% GNC (groundnut meal) or SBM (soybean meal)
6% blood meal
2.5%. Oyster shell/bone meal/ limestone
0.03% (3g per 1kg baker’s Yeast) (probiotic)
0.1% H-Plus from Animal care
Cost of Starting a Pig Farm in Nigeria
The feed formulation as listed above will cost you about N30 per kilo. 1kg of a live pig is sold for the range of N280 and N300. If you pig consumes up to 3kg of feed to give 1kg of meat, it definitely means that it will cost nothing less than N90 to produce 1kg of live weight. Therefore you are in to make a gross margin of N300 – N90 = N 210. Another crucial component of pig farming that is capital concentrated is their house. Before building a pig house you ought to have properly concluded on the number of pigs you intend to grow. You need to decide whether you want to do batch (all in all out) or continuous pig production (first in first out).
The Largest Pig farm in Nigeria is located in Giwa, Oke Aro Lagos State Nigeria. Accommodation cost at this location is very high. I will suggest you select your pig pen close to where you can get low-cost land. And also, source raw materials at a low price. The following things will greatly help you in your pig farming:
Cassava Plantation & => Learn How to Start Cassava Planting & Processing
You’ll also need to construct a manure alley within the pig house to enable flushing of the pigs waste via the manure alley (the manure alley is like a gutter). For example, using pig ni.ppl.es (see picture below) will ensure that you deliver constant and clean water to your pigs; it will also reduce labor requirements. More of which I will be explaining the important pig farming guides below.
Important Pig Farming Guides
1. Secure a Breeding Environment
Depending on how frequent you plan to feed your pigs, a plot of land might just be enough for small-scale start-up. But if you intend to acquire a large farmland (starting from 5 acres) that will be okay so that your pigs can graze in the open and retire to the open pen where they will continue feeding and playing. Acquiring a farmland will be your biggest investment in this business. An acre of land in a rural area ranges from N200, 000 x how many you want. Do your stuff there and transport your goods to the town. A lot of butchers will be attracted to your farm to make a purchase, automatically saving you the cost of transportation.
It is good to breed pigs in the pasture by leaving them occasionally to root around in the fields where they can find grass to eat, and that can only be attained when you have a very large farmland (Pasture Ground) to cater for this. As they grow into maturity, you take care of them and ensure that they do not run away.
2. Build Quality Pens
You will have to consider building a very big pen if you don’t want your pigs to injure themselves. A quality and spacious pen is also very crucial to keep the pigs in good health and free from diseases and contaminations. A Proper drainage is needed too to avoid the water from becoming stagnant in the pen which could attract insects and more harmful pest and diseases that will severely harm your pigs. To avoid your pigs getting really dirty this is ironic considering the dirty nature of a pig. Anyways, try changing the water and refilling the pool as regular as possible will ensure that they are clean all the time. If you are to accommodate them outdoor, a shelter should be built for them.
3. Buy Healthy Piglets
To ensure a healthy farm, you’ll need to ensure the piglets you are about to rear in your farm are health. Make sure you buy from a trusted source/ vendor. Also, ensure that the ones you are purchasing have a history of vaccination. Buy as much as you want but don’t buy too many for a start. The advisable thing to do is start with a small number and increase gradually. This way, you’ll be able to learn the process and procedures at the initial stage.
Talk to the veterinary doctor – you need the services of a vet doctors for consistent checkup and vaccination as well as feeding and nutritional advice. A pig eats generally what every human being eats and doesn’t present many worries when it comes to feeding.
Pig Price Range in Nigeria – A piglet is sold for about N 8,000 –N 10,000 while a full-grown pig is sold for N30, 000 – N 50,000.
Get employees not less than 4 if you are dealing with up to 100 pigs. In case you may need lesser than 1-2 number of employee’s. These workers will be assisting in the cleaning of the pigs and the pens, feeding the pigs and making sure they are well behaved and other things necessary.
4. Feeding Is Important For Piggery
Like I said earlier, just like humans, pigs eat a very wide variety of foods. Literally, anything humans can eat they can eat. Pigs need a balanced diet like humans such as fiber, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals to thrive. The feed will take the major aspect of your spending on the farm.
Pigs, like all animals, must have constant access to clean fresh drinking water. As well as tipping the trough to make a wallow, pigs will also stand in the water trough and wash their dirty faces in it, so it needs to be checked regularly, cleaned out and refilled. Galvanized-troughs are robust and very easy to clean, and not too easy for the pigs to tip over. The Automatic drinkers are available but aren’t half as much fun for the pigs. Put all these in place and you are as good as having started your business. There is nothing as good as being in business you that is sure to yield profit; Pig farming is one of such business. All you need to do is to feed and take care of them. Do that proper and watch them multiply in three fold.
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